Anaconda Boot Options

Authors:Anaconda Developers <anaconda-devel-list@redhat.com> Will Woods <wwoods@redhat.com> Anne Mulhern <amulhern@redhat.com>

These are the boot options that are useful when starting Anaconda. For more information refer to the appropriate Installation Guide for your release and to the Anaconda wiki.

Anaconda bootup is handled by dracut, so most of the kernel arguments handled by dracut are also valid. See dracut.kernel(7) for details on those options.

Throughout this guide, installer-specific options are prefixed with inst (e.g. inst.ks). Options specified without the inst prefix are recognized, but the prefix may be required in a future release.

Installation Source

Note

An installable tree is a directory structure containing installer images, packages, and repodata. [1]

Usually this is either a copy of the DVD media (or loopback-mounted DVD image), or the <arch>/os/ directory on the Fedora mirrors.

[1]an installable tree must contain a valid .treeinfo file for inst.repo or inst.stage2 to work.

inst.repo

This gives the location of the Install Source - that is, the place where the installer can find its images and packages. It can be specified in a few different ways:

inst.repo=cdrom
Search the system’s CDROM drives for installer media. This is the default.
inst.repo=cdrom:<device>
Look for installer media in the specified disk device.
inst.repo=hd:<device>:<path>
Mount the given disk partition and install from ISO file on the given path. This installation method requires ISO file, which contains an installable tree.
inst.repo=[http,https,ftp]://<host>/<path>
Look for an installable tree at the given URL.
inst.repo=nfs:[<options>:]<server>:/<path>

Mount the given NFS server and path. Uses NFS version 3 by default.

You can specify what version of the NFS protocol to use by adding nfsvers=X to the options.

This accepts not just an installable tree directory in the <path> element, but you can also specify an .iso file. That ISO file is then mounted and used as the installation tree. This is often used for simulating a standard DVD installation using a remote DVD.iso image.

Note

Disk devices may be specified with any of the following forms:

Kernel Device Name
/dev/sda1, sdb2
Filesystem Label
LABEL=FLASH, LABEL=Fedora, CDLABEL=Fedora\x2023\x20x86_64
Filesystem UUID
UUID=8176c7bf-04ff-403a-a832-9557f94e61db

Non-alphanumeric characters should be escaped with \xNN, where ‘NN’ is the hexidecimal representation of the character (e.g. \x20 for the space character (‘ ‘).

inst.noverifyssl

Prevents Anaconda from verifying the ssl certificate for all HTTPS connections with an exception of the additional kickstart repos (where –noverifyssl can be set per repo).

inst.proxy

inst.proxy=PROXY_URL

Use the given proxy settings when performing an installation from a HTTP/HTTPS/FTP source. The PROXY_URL can be specified like this: [PROTOCOL://][USERNAME[:PASSWORD]@]HOST[:PORT].

inst.stage2

This specifies the location to fetch only the installer runtime image; packages will be ignored. Otherwise the same as inst.repo.

inst.dd

This specifies the location for driver rpms. May be specified multiple times. Locations may be specified using any of the formats allowed for inst.repo.

inst.multilib

This sets dnf’s multilib_policy to “all” (as opposed to “best”).

Kickstart

inst.ks

Give the location of a kickstart file to be used to automate the install. Locations may be specified using any of the formats allowed for inst.repo.

For any format the <path> component defaults to /ks.cfg if it is omitted.

For NFS kickstarts, if the <path> ends in /, <ip>-kickstart is added.

If inst.ks is used without a value, the installer will look for nfs:<next_server>:/<filename>

  • <next_server> is the DHCP “next-server” option, or the IP of the DHCP server itself
  • <filename> is the DHCP “filename” option, or /kickstart/, and if the filename given ends in /, <ip>-kickstart is added (as above)

For example:

  • DHCP server: 192.168.122.1
  • client address: 192.168.122.100
  • kickstart file: nfs:192.168.122.1:/kickstart/192.168.122.100-kickstart

inst.ks.sendmac

Add headers to outgoing HTTP requests which include the MAC addresses of all network interfaces. The header is of the form:

  • X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab

This is helpful when using inst.ks=http... to provision systems.

inst.ks.sendsn

Add a header to outgoing HTTP requests which includes the system’s serial number. [2]

The header is of the form:

  • X-System-Serial-Number: <serial>
[2]as read from /sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial

inst.ksstrict

With this option, all warnings from reading the kickstart file will be treated as errors. They will be printed on the output and the installation will terminate immediately.

By default, the warnings are printed to logs and the installation continues.

Network Options

Initial network setup is handled by dracut. For detailed information consult the “Network” section of dracut.kernel(7).

The most common dracut network options are covered here, along with some installer-specific options.

ip

Configure one (or more) network interfaces. You can use multiple ip arguments to configure multiple interfaces, but if you do you must specify an interface for every ip= argument, and you must specify which interface is the primary boot interface with bootdev.

Accepts a few different forms; the most common are:

ip=<dhcp|dhcp6|auto6|ibft>
Try to bring up every interface using the given autoconf method. Defaults to ip=dhcp if network is required by inst.repo, inst.ks, inst.updates, etc.
ip=<interface>:<autoconf>
Bring up only one interface using the given autoconf method, e.g. ip=eth0:dhcp.
ip=<ip>::<gateway>:<netmask>:<hostname>:<interface>:none

Bring up the given interface with a static network config, where:

<ip>
The client IP address. IPv6 addresses may be specified by putting them in square brackets, like so: [2001:DB8::1].
<gateway>
The default gateway. IPv6 addresses are accepted here too.
<netmask>
The netmask (e.g. 255.255.255.0) or prefix (e.g. 64).
<hostname>
Hostname for the client machine. This component is optional.
ip=<ip>::<gateway>:<netmask>:<hostname>:<interface>:<autoconf>:<mtu>

Bring up the given interface with the given autoconf method, but override the automatically obtained IP/gateway/etc. with the provided values.

Technically all of the items are optional, so if you want to use dhcp but also set a hostname you can use ip=::::<hostname>::dhcp.

nameserver

Specify the address of a nameserver to use. May be used multiple times.

bootdev

Specify which interface is the boot device. Required if multiple ip= options are used.

ifname

ifname=<interface>:<MAC>
Assign the given interface name to the network device with the given MAC. May be used multiple times.

Note

Dracut applies ifname option (which might involve renaming the device with given MAC) in initramfs only if the device is activated in initramfs stage (based on ip= option). If it is not the case, installer still binds the current device name to the MAC by adding HWADDR setting to the ifcfg file of the device.

inst.dhcpclass

Set the DHCP vendor class identifier [3]. Defaults to anaconda-$(uname -srm).

[3]ISC dhcpd will see this value as “option vendor-class-identifier”.

inst.waitfornet

inst.waitfornet=<TIMEOUT_IN_SECONDS>
Wait for network connectivity at the beginning of the second stage of installation (after switchroot from early initramfs stage when the installer process is run).

Console / Display Options

console

This is a kernel option that specifies what device to use as the primary console. For example, if your console should be on the first serial port, use console=ttyS0.

You can use multiple console= options; boot messages will be displayed on all consoles, but anaconda will put its display on the last console listed.

Implies inst.text.

inst.lang

Set the language to be used during installation. The language specified must be valid for the lang kickstart command.

inst.singlelang

Install in single language mode - no interactive options for installation language and language support configuration will be available. If a language has been specified via the inst.lang boot option or the lang kickstart command it will be used. If no language is specified Anaconda will default to en_US.UTF-8.

inst.geoloc

Configure geolocation usage in Anaconda. Geolocation is used to pre-set language and time zone.

inst.geoloc=0
Disables geolocation.
inst.geoloc=provider_fedora_geoip
Use the Fedora GeoIP API (default).
inst.geoloc=provider_hostip
Use the Hostip.info GeoIP API.

inst.keymap

Set the keyboard layout to use. The layout specified must be valid for use with the keyboard kickstart command.

inst.cmdline

Run the installer in command-line mode. This mode does not allow any interaction; all options must be specified in a kickstart file or on the command line.

inst.graphical

Run the installer in graphical mode. This is the default.

inst.text

Run the installer using a limited text-based UI. Unless you’re using a kickstart file this probably isn’t a good idea; you should use VNC instead.

inst.noninteractive

Run the installer in a non-interactive mode. This mode does not allow any user interaction and can be used with graphical or text mode. With text mode it behaves the same as the inst.cmdline mode.

inst.resolution

Specify screen size for the installer. Use format nxm, where n is the number of horizontal pixels, m the number of vertical pixels. The lowest supported resolution is 800x600.

inst.vnc

Run the installer GUI in a VNC session. You will need a VNC client application to interact with the installer. VNC sharing is enabled, so multiple clients may connect.

A system installed with VNC will start in text mode (runlevel 3).

inst.vncpassword

Set a password on the VNC server used by the installer.

inst.vncconnect

inst.vncconnect=<host>[:<port>]

Once the install starts, connect to a listening VNC client at the given host. Default port is 5900.

Use with vncviewer -listen.

inst.headless

Specify that the machine being installed onto doesn’t have any display hardware, and that anaconda shouldn’t bother looking for it.

inst.xdriver

Specify the X driver that should be used during installation and on the installed system.

inst.usefbx

Use the framebuffer X driver (fbdev) rather than a hardware-specific driver.

Equivalent to inst.xdriver=fbdev.

inst.sshd

Start up sshd during system installation. You can then ssh in while the installation progresses to debug or monitor its progress.

Caution

The root account has no password by default. You can set one using the sshpw kickstart command.

Debugging and Troubleshooting

inst.rescue

Run the rescue environment. This is useful for trying to diagnose and fix broken systems.

inst.updates

Give the location of an updates.img to be applied to the installer runtime. Locations may be specified using any of the formats allowed for inst.repo.

For any format the <path> component defaults to /updates.img if it is omitted.

inst.nokill

A debugging option that prevents anaconda from and rebooting when a fatal error occurs or at the end of the installation process.

inst.loglevel

inst.loglevel=<debug|info|warning|error|critical>
Set the minimum level required for messages to be logged on a terminal (log files always contain messages of all levels). The default value is info.

inst.noshell

Do not put a shell on tty2 during install.

inst.syslog

inst.syslog=<host>[:<port>]

Once installation is running, send log messages to the syslog process on the given host. The default port is 514 (UDP).

Requires the remote syslog process to accept incoming connections.

inst.virtiolog

Forward logs through the named virtio port (a character device at /dev/virtio-ports/<name>).

If not provided, a port named org.fedoraproject.anaconda.log.0 will be used by default, if found.

See the Anaconda wiki logging page for more info on setting up logging via virtio.

inst.zram

Forces/disables (on/off) usage of zRAM swap for the installation process.

Boot loader options

extlinux

Use extlinux as the bootloader. Note that there’s no attempt to validate that this will work for your platform or anything; it assumes that if you ask for it, you want to try.

leavebootorder

Boot the drives in their existing order, to override the default of booting into the newly installed drive on Power Systems servers and EFI systems. This is useful for systems that, for example, should network boot first before falling back to a local boot.

Storage options

inst.nodmraid

Disable support for dmraid.

Warning

This option is never a good idea! If you have a disk that is erroneously identified as part of a firmware RAID array, that means it has some stale RAID metadata on it which must be removed using an appropriate tool (dmraid and/or wipefs).

inst.nompath

Disable support for multipath devices. This is for systems on which a false-positive is encountered which erroneously identifies a normal block device as a multipath device. There is no other reason to use this option.

Warning

Not for use with actual multipath hardware! Using this to attempt to install to a single path of a multipath is ill-advised, and not supported.

inst.gpt

Prefer creation of GPT disklabels.

Other options

inst.selinux

Enable SELinux usage in the installed system (default). Note that when used as a boot option, “selinux” and “inst.selinux” are not the same. The “selinux” option is picked up by both the kernel and Anaconda, but “inst.selinux” is processed only by Anaconda. So when “selinux=0” is used, SELinux will be disabled both in the installation environment and in the installed system, but when “inst.selinux=0” is used SELinux will only be disabled in the installed system. Also note that while SELinux is running in the installation environment by default, it is running in permissive mode so disabling it there does not make much sense.

inst.nosave

Controls what installation results should not be saved to the installed system, valid values are: “input_ks”, “output_ks”, “all_ks”, “logs” and “all”.

input_ks
Disables saving of the input kickstart (if any).
output_ks
Disables saving of the output kickstart generated by Anaconda.
all_ks
Disables saving of both input and output kickstarts.
logs
Disables saving of all installation logs.
all
Disables saving of all kickstarts and all logs.

Multiple values can be combined as a comma separated list, for example: input_ks,logs

Note

The nosave option is meant for excluding files from the installed system that can’t be removed by a kickstart %post script, such as logs and input/output kickstarts.

Third-party options

Since Fedora 19 the Anaconda installer supports third-party extensions called addons. The addons can support their own set of boot options which should be documented in their documentation or submitted here.

inst.kdump

inst.kdump_addon=on/off

Enable kdump anaconda addon to setup the kdump service.

Deprecated Options

These options should still be accepted by the installer, but they are deprecated and may be removed soon.

method

This is an alias for inst.repo.

repo=nfsiso:...

The difference between an installable tree and a dir with an .iso file is autodetected, so this is the same as inst.repo=nfs:...

dns

Use nameserver instead. Note that nameserver does not accept comma-separated lists; use multiple nameserver options instead.

netmask, gateway, hostname

These can be provided as part of the ip option.

ip=bootif

A PXE-supplied BOOTIF option will be used automatically, so there’s no need

ksdevice

Not present
The first device with a usable link is used
ksdevice=link
Ignored (this is the same as the default behavior)
ksdevice=bootif
Ignored (this is the default if BOOTIF= is present)
ksdevice=ibft
Replaced with ip=ibft. See ip
ksdevice=<MAC>
Replaced with BOOTIF=${MAC/:/-}
ksdevice=<DEV>
Replaced with bootdev

Removed Options

These options are obsolete and have been removed.

askmethod, asknetwork

Anaconda’s initramfs is now is completely non-interactive, so these have been removed.

Instead, use inst.repo or specify appropriate Network Options.

blacklist, nofirewire

modprobe handles blacklisting kernel modules on its own; try modprobe.blacklist=<mod1>,<mod2>...

You can blacklist the firewire module with modprobe.blacklist=firewire_ohci.

serial

This option was never intended for public use; it was supposed to be used to force anaconda to use /dev/ttyS0 as its console when testing it on a live machine.

Use console=ttyS0 or similar instead. See console for details.

updates

Use inst.updates instead.

essid, wepkey, wpakey

Dracut doesn’t support wireless networking, so these don’t do anything.

ethtool

Who needs to force half-duplex 10-base-T anymore?

gdb

This was used to debug loader, so it has been removed. There are plenty of options for debugging dracut-based initramfs - see the dracut “Troubleshooting” guide.

inst.mediacheck

Use the dracut option rd.live.check instead.

ks=floppy

We no longer support floppy drives. Try inst.ks=hd:<device> instead.

display

For remote display of the UI, use inst.vnc.

utf8

All this option actually did was set TERM=vt100. The default TERM setting works fine these days, so this was no longer necessary.

noipv6

ipv6 is built into the kernel and can’t be removed by anaconda.

You can disable ipv6 with ipv6.disable=1. This setting will be carried onto the installed system.

upgradeany

Anaconda doesn’t handle upgrades anymore.

inst.repo=hd:<device>:<path> for installable tree

Anaconda can’t use this option with installable tree but only with an ISO file.